What is artificial intelligence?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad branch of computer science that focuses on building smart machines that can perform intelligent tasks.
To date, there are many approaches to the creation of algorithms. Advances in the fields of machine learning and deep learning over the past few years have significantly changed the technology industry.
What are the definitions of artificial intelligence?
The fundamental goal and vision of artificial intelligence was established by the English mathematician Alan Turing in his article "Computing Machines and the Mind" published in 1950. He asked a simple question: "Can machines think?" Then the scientist proposed the famous test , named after him.
At its core, AI is a branch of computer science that seeks to answer Turing's question in the affirmative. It is an attempt to reproduce or simulate human intelligence in machines.
The global goal of artificial intelligence still raises many questions and disputes. The main limitation in defining AI as simply “intelligent machines” is that neither scientists nor philosophers can explain what artificial intelligence is and what exactly makes a machine smart.
Scientists and authors of the textbook "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach" Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig combined their work around the topic of intelligent agents in machines and defined AI as "the study of agents that receive perceptions from the environment and perform actions."
While speaking at the Japan AI Experience in 2017, DataRobot CEO Jeremy Achin began his speech with the following definition of how AI is being used today:
“AI is a computer system capable of performing tasks that require human intelligence… Many of these systems are based on machine learning, others are based on deep learning, and some of them are based on very boring things like rules.”
Although these definitions may seem abstract, they help define the main lines of theoretical research in computer science and provide concrete ways to implement artificial intelligence programs for solving applied problems.
What is Turing's contribution to the development of AI?
In the middle of the last century, Alan Turing laid the theoretical foundation that was ahead of its time and formed the basis of modern computer science, for which he was called the "father of computer science."
In 1936, the scientist created an abstract calculator - the so-called Turing machine - an important component of the theory of algorithms, which formed the basis of modern computers. In theory, such a machine can solve any algorithmic problem.
In turn, if the algorithm can be run on a Turing machine, then the programming language used to create it will have "Turing completeness" in which any algorithm can be written. For example, the C# language has such completeness, but html does not.
Also named after a mathematician is a mental test that is not related to a machine, but is directly related to artificial intelligence - the Turing test. In the scientific community, it is believed that as soon as the machine passes this test, it will be possible to fully talk about the emergence of intelligent machines.
The essence of the game is that a person, using text correspondence, interacts simultaneously with a machine and another person. The task of the computer is to mislead the test participant and convincingly impersonate a person.
What is AI like?
Artificial intelligence is usually divided into two broad categories :
- Weak AI: Sometimes referred to as Narrow AI, this type of artificial intelligence operates in a limited context and mimics human intelligence. Weak AI is often focused on performing very well on one task. And, although these machines may seem smart, they work with great limitations.
- Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): AGI, sometimes referred to as "Strong AI", is the kind of artificial intelligence we see in movies, like the robots from Westworld or Joy's hologram from Blade Runner 2049. . AGI is a machine with general intelligence that, like a human, can use it to solve any problem.